Asme section viii division 1 pdf free download

asme section viii division 1 pdf free download

  • Pressure Vessel -
  • External Pressure – Pressure Vessel Engineering
  • Asme Code Section Viii Division 1 Design And-PDF Free Download
  • ASME VIII - DIV.1 pdf - Free Download
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  • ASME BPVC VIII Div 1 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
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  • Removal, not weld-over, is required. Type and extent of reinforcement. Weld spacing. Proximity of reinforcement to shell weld seams. Thickness of component parts. All aspects of corrosion phenomena, all potential leak or failure mechanisms must be examined. Assessment period shall be less than or equal to the appropriate internal inspection interval. NOTE: Excessive foundation settlement can have a serious impact on the integrity of shell and bottoms. Refer to Appendix "B" for tank bottom settlement techniques.

    Internal pitting. Corrosion of weld seams and HAZ c. Weld joint cracking. Stresses roof support loads and settlement. Underside corrosion i. Inadequate drainage. Lack of an annular plate ring, when required. Uneven settlement with resultant high stress. Roof support columns or other supports welded to bottom without allowance for adequate movement.

    Download PDF Embed Report. Mohammad El Naggar Subscribe 0. Comments. Content. Pressure Vessel Design, fabrication and test ASME section VIII, div. 1 Esmael Kaynejad Pardad Petrodanesh Co Mechanical Department 1 Keynezhad Pardad Petrodanesh Co Mechanical Department Asme Section 8 Div 1 Free Pdf [EPUB] Asme Section 8 Div 1 PDF Books this is the book you are looking for, from the many other titlesof Asme Section 8 Div 1 PDF books, here is alsoavailable other sources of this Manual MetcalUser Guide 82nd ABN Div Pam DIV PAM - 82nd ABN Div Pam 5 1. Download Free PDF. API Tank Inspection Code: Inspection, repair, alteration, and reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the petrochemical industry (Training only) Course Instructor(s. Arquitectonia Sac. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper.

    Rock or gravel foundation pads. Non-homogeneous fill under bottom i. Awme supported sumps. Spot U. Visual, internal survey with hammer test. UT "B" scan. Section removal i. Abrasive blast scan for capillary wicking. Deterministic See 4. Not normally used. Probabilistic See 4. Statistical analysis based on thickness data resulting from visual, mechanical or UT survey.

    asme section viii division 1 pdf free download

    Unless an RBI program is in place. See Visual Aide of Table page 4 - 9. With product SG less than 1. SG greater than 1. Settlement b. Erosion c. Cracking of concrete i. Calcining - loss of water of hydration. Normally occurs when concrete has been exposed to high temperature for a period of time. During intermediate cooling periods, the concrete absorbs moisture, swells, loses its strength and cracks. Chemical attack: cyclic changes in temperature and by freezing moisture.

    Expansion in porous concrete caused by freezing moisture - Spalling or serious structural cracks. Concrete bond deterioration - Attack by sulfate-type alkalies or even chlorides. Temperature cracks hairline with uniform width. Not Normally serious. For repair or renewal See Prevent water entry. Distortion of anchor bolts and excessive cracking of the concrete structure in which they are embedded may indicate: i Serious foundation settlement. This failure has primarily occurred in welded tanks.

    Hydro test at initial erection. First filling in cold weather. After a change to lower temperature service. After a repair-alteration. For example, the change to a more severe service involving one of the following: a. Product with a higher specific gravity. General Comments: 1. Fracture assessment would most likely be conducted by a metallurgist or design specialist. Several options exist based on the most severe combination of temperature and liquid level experienced by the tank during its life, whereby an increased potential for brittle fracture failure exists: a.

    Pressure Vessel -

    Restrict the liquid level. Restrict the minimum metal temperature c. Change service to a lower Specific Gravity. A combination of the three areas listed above. Remember: Reducing the storage temperature,- Increases the potential for failure. Shell stresses are increased and potential for failure is greater with asme stored product change to a higher specific gravity. Nature of stored product. Corrosion prevention systems. Previous inspection results. Methods-materials of construction or repair.

    Tank location i. Potential for air, water or soil pollution. Leak detection systems. Free in operating mode. Section requirements. Changes in service including water bottoms. The existence of a double bottom or a release prevention barrier. Routine requirements include: a. Visual inspection from the ground. Intervals shall not exceed one month. External check for leaks, distortion, settlement, corrosion, foundation, paint, insulation, etc.

    Tank may be in operation. Five 5 years from commissioning new tank. At five year intervals existing tanks where corrosion rate is not known. Determine that bottom is not severely corroded or leaking. Gather data necessary to determine minimum "t" of shell and bottom for proper evaluation. The Authorized Inspector who is responsible for evaluation of a tank must visually examine each tank and review the NDE results.

    Corrosion rates established during prior surveys. Anticipated corrosion rates based on experience with tanks in similar service. Normally, bottom corrosion rates will control. Set interval so that bottom plate minimum "t" at the next inspection are not less than the values listed in Tbl In No case, shall the internal inspection interval exceed twenty 20 years.

    This method includes: a. Determining bottom plate "t". Consideration of environmental risk. Consideration of inspection quality. Analysis of corrosion measurements. NOTE: Must be documented and made part of permanent record. Documentation also required. Would be very expensive and time consuming. Plant personnel could check a number of items. All are not necessary, unless special condition exists. If no records exist, judgment may be based on tanks in similar service. Construction Records ii.

    Inspection History iii. Nameplate information b. Drawings c. Download d. Construction completion report e. NDE performed f. Material analysis g. Includes all measurements taken, condition of all parts inspected and a record of all examination and tests. Include a complete description of any unusual condition with probable reason for problem and recommendation for corrections.

    Sketches and detailed repair procedure should be provided if so desired by the customer. Corrosion rate and inspection interval calculations should be furnished and made a part of the permanent file. Include results of coating-lining experience. Reason for the repair. Sketches showing location and extent. Metal thickness measurements b. Conditions found c. Repairs d.

    Settlement data e. Recommendations 6. Pdf, the results must be reviewed by an Authorized Inspector. See Section division for specific data. Original contract drawings, API asme or other suitable documentation do not require further identification. Materials not identified must be tested. See 7. API impact values must be free. Welding consumables must conform to the AWS classification that is applicable.

    Must meet applicable standard. Butt-weld joint with complete fusion and penetration. Calculate the maximum liquid level each course based on product specific gravity. Actual "t" measured for each course. Material allowable stress for each course. See Table - API Selected design method. The Authorized Inspector will establish hold points. NOTE: When evaluating plate suitability, any change from the original design condition i. NOTE: The replacement plate may be circular, section, square with rounded corners or rectangular with rounded corners, except when an entire plate is replaced.

    Maintain weld spacing as per established API values. NOTE: Prior to welding the new vertical joints, the existing horizontal weld must be cut for a minimum distance of twelve inches 12" beyond the new vertical joints. As normal, weld verticals before roundseams. Fillet welded lapped patch plates are permitted. See API 3. Joints in existing lap-weld shells may be repaired according to original construction standard c.

    Weld details - See API 5. Existing patch plates may be pdf to this Standard. See figure for weld spacing details. The minimum repair plate dimension shall be 4 inches. Complete removal by gouging-grinding and the cavity properly prepared for welding. NOTE: Maximum allowable depth of undercut: a. If welded, grind flush. Additionally, the minimum diameter of the insert plate shall be at least twice the diameter of the penetration or diameter plus twelve inches 12"whichever is greater.

    Options for alternate compliance include the following three 3 items: 9. Widely scattered pits. Pinholes c. Cracks in the bottom plates. Shell-to-bottom weld. Welded-on patch plates d. Replacement of bottom or annular plate. No 3 plate laps closer than twelve inches 12" from each other, from the tank shell, from butt weld annular joints and from joints of the annular ring to normal bottom plates.

    Column length revisions are also required on fixed roof tanks. Also see API 4. Plate "t" b. Roof support structure c. Loading d. Roof-to-shell junction 9. Roofs a. Repair in accordance to original construction drawings. Items for consideration are: a. Use temporary spacers to keep roof centered. In-service repair may be limited to seal component parts or high positioned vapor seals. Adjusting hanger system or primary shoe seal division. Adding foam filler to toroidal seals.

    Increasing length of rim mounted secondary seals. Replacement all or part of the primary system. Adding a rim extension to install secondary seal. NOTE: Buckled parts require replacement, not straightening. NOTE: Connection size viii shell "t" limitations are: a. Eight inches 8" and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0. Fourteen inches 14" and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.

    Eighteen inches 18" and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0. Tank roof b. If no documentation is available, API Pub. A two download pad requires a horizontal weld. Full penetration weld - pad to nozzle. Limit weld heat input as practical. Conduct NDE viii required by procedure. Pneumatically test per API procedure.

    External Pressure – Pressure Vessel Engineering

    After valve installation, pressure test at least 1. Cuts made asmme minimum of 6" away from existing weld seams, except where cuts cross existing welds. If temporary attachments are removed, grind area smooth. The existing shell-to-bottom weld connection shall not be reused unless the entire bottom is to be salvaged intact.

    Vertical weld joints should not aligned with joints located in bottom plates. No welding over heat affected zones from original free weldsexcept where new joints cross original joints. Refer to Fig. No welding is allowed when parts to be welded are wet from rain, snow or ice or when rain or snow is falling, or during high wind conditions unless the work is shielded. Caution this is a common practice and should be avoided. Verticalmanual tacks - Remove.

    Vertical, submerged tacks - If sound, clean only. NOTE: Tack welds left in place must have been applied by a qualified scetion. NOTE: All other coating must be removed prior to welding. Under 0. NOTE: Complete vertical welding before roundseam below is welded. If the material specification is unknown or obsolete, test coupons for pdf procedure qualification shall be taken from the actual plate to be used.

    Adding reinforcement plate to an unreinforced penetration. Installing a hot-tap connection. Consideration should be given for extra NDE on hot taps. Additionally, plate greater than 1", the back- gouged surface of root pass and final pass each side shall be examined over its full length by a magnetic particle or vkii penetrate test. New plate to new plate: Same as API New plate to existing plate: Same as APIplus one 1 additional radiograph. Existing plate to existing plate: Same as APIplus one 1 additional radiograph.

    New plate to existing plate: Same as APIplus one 1 additional radiograph for asme 50 feet of horizontal weld. Existing plate to existing plate: Same as APIplus viii 1 additional radiograph for each 50 of horizontal weld. New plate to existing plate: Shall be secyion. Existing plate to existing plate: Shall be radiographed.

    NOTE: All junctions between repair and existing weld shall be radiographed. A reconstructed tank. Any tank that has had major repairs or alterations See A tank where an engineering evaluation indicates the need for the hydrostatic test. Major would therefore include: a. The installation of any shell penetration beneath the design liquid level larger than 12" or any division penetration within 12" of the shell.

    Any shell plate beneath design liquid level or any annular plate where the longest dimension of plate exceeds 12". New bottom download if the foundation under the new bottom is not disturbed. The Asem ring remains intact 2. The welding repair does not result in welding on the existing section within the critical zone. Partial of complete jacking of a tank shell.

    The repair has been reviewed and approved by ase engineer, in writing. The tank owner or operator has authorized the exemption in writing. The Maximum spacing between measurement points shall be 32 asmf. The following information is required a. Reconstructed to API Year reconstruction completed. If known, the original applicable standard and original date. Nominal diameter f. Nominal height. Design specific gravity of product stored.

    Same permissible operating liquid level. Material for each shell course. Maximum operating temperature. Allowable stress used in calculations for each course. Component integrity evaluation, including brittle fracture considerations. Re-rating data including liquid level. Repair and alteration considerations. Inspections including "t" measurements.

    Radiographs to be retained for at least one year. Brittle fracture considerations. Original construction data. Description of tank diameter, height and service. Design conditions i. Shell material and thickness by course. Tank perimeter elevations. Construction completion record. Diision for hydrostatic test exemption Initial settlement survey, at erection and hydro.

    Planned frequency, per divisoon settlement predictions c. For existing tanks with no settlement historymonitoring should be based on visual observations and prior service history. Tank should be emptied and releveling repair conducted. Localized bottom plate repair. Partial releveling of tank periphery. Major releveling of shell and bottom. Local depressions may require other techniques. May vary in magnitude, depending on soil characteristics.

    It is the least severe or threatening settlement problem. It does not introduce stress in tank structure, but does present a potential problem for piping, nozzles and attachments. Rotates the tank in a tilted plane. Can also cause binding of peripheral seals in a floating roof and pdc roof travel. This may be visible in the form of elongation of top shell ring in floating roof tanks.

    Asme Code Section Viii Division 1 Design And-PDF Free Download

    Can affect tank nozzles that have piping attached to them. Due to a tank shell being a rather flexible structure, non-planer configuration type settlement often occurs. Potential Problems: a. Increased stress levels. Pdf of upper shell. Floating roof travel interference and potential seal damage or roof "hang-up". Development of shell flat spots. Therefore, this type free becomes very diivsion to determine severity and evaluate properly.

    Common approach for settlement survey: a. Obtain transit survey from the correct number of evenly spaced points. Divislon magnitude of uniform and rigid body tilt from each point on tank periphery. Develop a graphic line point representation of the involved data. A stress analysis method downloda now included in this paragraph. B-4 for pictorial view. Localized bottom plate stresses. Void severity below the bottom plate. Not normally seen sction extreme problem.

    When occurring, normally associated with new tank where no or insufficient load bearing soil test borings have been made. Each condition must be evaluated, based on service conditions, construction materials, soil characteristics, foundation design and prior service history. The formula for calculating the maximum permissible deflection is shown on page B Requires technical assistance.

    Various repair techniques are acceptable. See Section 9. Several new figures have been added to Appendix B, however the division downloae the new asme and requirements have section challenged. There is no bases for the information in the figures. Viii user is left to his own devices as how to use this download. Use these as guidance items only. Numerous items need not be checked by the inspector, but rather by plant personnel.

    ASME VIII - DIV.1 pdf - Free Download

    Table C-1 In Service Inspection checklist includes separate items. The Technical Inquiry Responses have also been listed, but are not a part of the exam. This information is useful in actual application of API This is a very good section that will be useful to the user. This is G. One common type of G. It does not include aboveground storage tank inspector the visual examination that viii included in certified by API see 3.

    The procedure can include multiple methods and tools, G. This record must contain the data for all essential G. Asme G. APIC b. API c. API 2. Which of the following have the ultimate responsibility for complying with API standard provisions? On-site Inspector b. Contractor Involved c. Relevant State or Federal Agency 3. Internal pressures inside tanks may vary. Which of the following pressures represent the maximum amount and is still considered to be atmospheric storage?

    What is the joint efficiency of a lap riveted joint with one 1 row of rivets? Where a testing medium ame than water was used. When external UT "t" measurements are used to determine a rate of general, uniform corrosion relevant to shell integrity which of section following values cannot be exceeded? What primary factor determines the interval between internal and external inspections? Jurisdictional regulations b. Tank service history, unless special reasons indicate an download inspection is required.

    Known free suspected corrosion activity of product. What is the minimum dimension for a shell ring replacement piece or segment? The actual area requiring renewal, plus 6" on all four surrounding sides. Which of the areas described below are considered to be the "critical zone" involving tank bottom repair? Within the annular ring, within 12" of shell, or within 12" of inside edge of annular plate ring.

    Any area where 3—plate laps are located c. Within 36" measured vertically from any shell penetration above. Within 3" from the shell on the bottom plates digision Select the minimum number of "t" measurements required along the circumference of any proposed "hot-tap" nozzle location : a. One 1 on horizontal centerline 3" from division on each side of proposed shell opening cut. Four 4 c. Eight 8 d. Establishment of both a minimum and average "t" over the entire nozzle installation area.

    What type of contour cut if any and what degree of bevel if any is required on the nozzle "barrel" end that is to be diviskon to shell during a "hot-tap". Cut to shell contour and outside beveled for full penetration pdf weld. No contour cut required. When reconstructing tank shells with a material "t" exceeding 1. In re-erecting a tank shell, what length "sweep-board" and what are maximum allowable values for weld seam peaking? AWS vioi. Relevant to new or repaired vertical joints in existing shell plates, how many radiographs are required?

    Twice those required by API API requirements plus one 1 in every joint. One 1 for each welder or operator involved on each ring. Two 2 for each welder or operator amse on each ring for all plate thicknesses. There is one area of general corrosion on the north side of the shell 38 inches wide and 20 inches tall. The tank was built to API7th Edition.

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    Calculate the minimum thickness for the first course based on product alone. There are four pits lined vertically downloac the south side of the tank in the first course. The pits measure 1", 1. The pit depth is approximately 0.

    ASME BPVC VIII Div 1 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

    A repair is required. Because of the vertical pits, no repair is required. If the pit depth is free. Scattered pits may be ignored. A bulge is found on the tank floor, the diameter of the bulge is 30 inches, what is the maximum permissible height for the bulge? An area of edge settlement in the tank bottom 6 feet from the tank shell has sloped down and settled.

    The settlement measures 2 inches at the deepest division. The edge settlement area has bottom lap welds approximately parallel to the shell. A more rigorous stress analysis must be performed. The area must be repaired. Sloped edge settlement is usually no problem d. The area should be documented and checked during the next inspection.

    Figure B Using figure B download area is acceptable, it should section documented. NOTE: In larger tanks over feet in diameteruse of higher tensile strength steel, plus increased NDE procedures reduces plate pdf. API stops at the face of the first asme. API stops at the first sealing surface. API stops at the first threaded connection. API stops at the first circumferential weld. NOTE: Most common plates used: 1.

    ASTM A 3. Customer may require a set of charpy v-notch impact specimens. Special toughness requirements may be specified. NOTE: Also must be at least as thick as primary plate! Shell nozzles and manway materials shall be equal or greater yield and tensile strength and shall be compatible with the viii material.

    Be knowledgeable about the eight 8 types listed.

    Asme Section Viii Division 1 Pdf Free Download –

    Verticals shall be butt joints with complete penetration and fusion that will provide the same quality of deposited metal on both outside and inside weld surfaces. Vertical joints in adjacent shell courses shall not be in alignment. An off-set from each other of "5t" where "t" is the thickest course at the point of offset. Welded on top side only full fillet only. On other than annular doughnut rings the plate under the shell must have the outer end of the joint fitted and welded to form a smooth bearing for the shell plate.

    Parallel edges - either square or v-grove beveled. A 12" minimum space from each other or tank shell also applies. See Par. Two 2 weld passes minimum are required. Welded top side only with continuous full-fillet. Butt welds are also permitted. Top angle horizontal leg may extend either inside or outside. A 1" minimum width to project beyond outside edge of shell, on lap weld bottoms i. Annular bottom plates must be 24 inches wide. A 2 inch projection beyond the outside of the shell. NOTE: Normally designed to be filled with water i.

    Required shell "t" including CA for design product and hydro test. Nominal "t" used, i. Material specification. Allowable stresses. Tables,, and A great deal of confusion has been relieved with the addition of figureminimum weld requirements for openings in shells according to section 3. NOTE: Self-supported roofs may require thicker plate. The maximum spacing for inner ring rafters i.

    Not necessary if "I" or "H" sections are used as rafters.

    If pipe, it must be sealed or provisions for draining or venting made. Outer row rafter clips - welded to tank shell. Column-base clip guides - welded to tank bottom to prevent dection shift. Other structural attachments - welded, bolted or riveted. Vertical plane surfaces - 30 lbs. Projected areas - Cylindrical surfaces - 18 lbs. Conical-double curved surfaces - 15 lbs. NOTE: All based on wind velocity of m. Pressing or non-injurious method required prior to any layout or shaping. Heating or hammering not permitted, unless heated to a forging temperature.

    Shielded metal-arc b. Gas metal-arc c. Flux-cored arc d. Submerged-arc e. Electroslag f.

    Electrogas May be performed manually, automatically or semi- automatically. Complete fusion with base metal required. Surfaces are wet or moisture falling on surfaces. During high winds unless shielded. If sound, cleaned and fused, tack welds can remain when the submerged-arc process is used. Vacuum box b. Tracer gas test c. The procedure is now in paragraph 6. Thereafter, one additional spot in each additional feet.

    Additionally, one random spot in each bottom ring vertical. Additionally, two spots in all bottom ring verticals one as near to bottom as ame, the other random. Divisiin thicker asem 1" - full radiography of all verticals, plus all junctions. Butt vii around periphery of insert nozzles and manways complete radiography. Thereafter, one spot in each additional feet. NOTE: Preferable spot - at the outer edge, near shell. NOTE: If adjacent spots are still unacceptable, additional spots are examined until weld is acceptable.

    No visible crater or surface cracks or divisoon strikes. Undercut does not exceed limits given in 5. Appendix B - Foundation Construction B. Sites on hillsides. Sites on swampy or filled ground. Sites underlain by layers of plastic clay. Sites adjacent to water courses or deep excavations. Sites immediately adjacent to heavy structures. Sites exposed to floodwaters. Removal viii replacement with suitable, compacted subsoil. Compacting with short piles - preloading with an overburden of suitably drained earth.

    Removing water content then compacting. Stabilizing by chemical methods or grout injection. Load distribution over a extra large area. Top 3"-4" - Clean sand, gravel, crushed stone maximum section 1"or other suitable inert material. Equipment and material movement will cause damages. Correct before bottom plates are installed. Better distribution of concentrated load. Provides a level, solid starting plane pdf erection.

    Provides better means to level tank during erection. Retains subsoil fill and finished top surface. Minimizes moisture under tank bottom. B-1 - Foundation with Concrete Ringwall. B-2 - Divisiion with Crushed Stone Ringwall. Free Have familiarity with above types. A 3' shoulder and berm - protected from weathering.

    Smooth, level surface for bottom division. Adequate drainage. Surface true to specified plane tolerances specified in 5. On the bottom side, where flexure is anticipated adjacent to girders, support legs, or other relatively rigid members, full-fillet welds not less than 2" long on 10" centers shall be used on any plate laps that occur within 12" of any such member. Pontoon roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat on a specific gravity product of 0.

    A 10" download rainfall in a 24 hour period with roof intact, except for double deck floating roofs that have emergency drains. Single-deck i. Each compartment provided with liquid tight manway. Manway covers provided with suitable hold-down fixture. Primary drains may be hose, jointed or siphon type. Check valve required hose and jointed pipe type on pontoon and pan type roofs. Minimum roof drain size - 3" for a tank in diameter and less; 4" for a tank greater than feet in diameter.

    Fabricator sizes accordingly. Pipe legs - notched or perforated at bottom. Adjustable length from roof top side. Designed to support roof and a uniform live load of at least 25 lbs. Sleeves, gussets, etc. Load distribution members required on tank bottom. NOTE: If pads used, continuous weld required. The space rim between outer roof periphery and shell - sealed by flexible device providing a reasonable close fit to shell surfaces.

    No plain i. Adequate expansion joints i. Must be durable to environment and must not contaminate the product. NOTE: Aviation fuel restrictions. Weld repair can be seal-weld type. Metallic pan internal - liquid contact with two peripheral rims. Tree double deck. Metallic on floats - deck above liquid.

    Metallic sandwich-panel - liquid contact, surface-coated honeycomb panels. Hybrid internal floating roofs. Flexible foam contained in an envelope b. Liquid fill in an envelope c. Wiper type resilient d. Metallic Shoe e. Other mutually agreeable types asme and customer H. Tank shell free of internal projections, burrs, etc. Envelope seals to be liquid tight.

    Field joints, minimum 3" lap. Mechanical shoe types - Galvanized steel 16 ga.

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    NOTE: Appurtenances require a vertical plumbness of 3". Both fixed and adjustable supports are acceptable. Same underside tack-weld required on seams as on conventional floating roofs. See C. Home Topics Documents Pressure Vessel. Embed Script. Size px x x x x Mohammad El Naggar Subscribe 0. The maximum allowable tensile stress values permitted for different materials are given in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D. Pardad Petrodanesh Co Mechanical Department www. Esmail Keynezhad www. Elliptical, hemispherical, and torispherical are the most commonly used head types.

    Note that all head types have a straight flange sf section, which simplifies welding the head to the adjacent cylindrical shell section. The elliptical and torispherical heads have an indicated head depth hwhich is measured from the straight flange to the maximum point of curvature on the inside surface. Esmail Keynezhad FIG. Esmail Keynezhad Subsection C Cont. Esmail Keynezhad UG It is your job to estimate the required component hicknesses.

    What are the minimum required thicknesses for the two cylindrical sections? If it is not acceptable, what minimum thickness is required? The vendor has not provided any sdction for this nozzle, and he has not provided any calculations to verify that use of the divlsion without reinforcement is acceptable. Determine if this nozzle requires additional reinforcement. If it does, assume that a 0. What must the minimum pad diameter be?

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      External pressure vacuum calculations start off more complex than internal pressure calculations, and once jackets or other sources of pressure are added the difficulty increases. The external pressure rating depends upon more variables and the failure mechanism is more difficult to understand.

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