Defense acquisition guidebook pdf download

defense acquisition guidebook pdf download

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  • Defense Acquisition Guidebook
  • Furthermore, specific efforts, they felt sure the commercial products and prices will also not be sector was doing a better job. The phe- identified. Confidentiality is essential for nomenon is a lot like the child who, after gaining access to procurement informa- being repeatedly told by his parents and tion, particularly for a buying activity or teachers that he is stupid, begins to believe manufacturer who understands that their pdf even though he is faced with a wealth practices and outcomes may be embarrass- of contrary evidence.

    The buyers had no ing to their organization or provide a specific evidence they were doing poorly, competitor insight into their proprietary but they had been conditioned by the pricing practices. With the power of com- media, national leaders, and DoD's own puters, it is trivial for an auditor to identify leadership to believe the worst.

    DoD dollars from the discarded contracts agencies and their contracting firms, in point to DoD being the better buyer. The manufac- compare the prices paid by DoD and turer explained that it was legally bound commercial sectors: pdf price dif- to its brokers not to provide their prices. In the past, mere price One broker finally provided a "ballpark" comparisons or unweighted price differ- markdown from the list price for the range ence analysis was download method used by of products, which was significantly above researchers and the media.

    One never had the price charged DoD by the manufac- any conception of whether a showcased turer. Since the broker did not provide the part or commodity purchase was represen- individual markdowns, those purchases tative of DoD buying or an outlier. Collectively, they Unweighted price difference analysis constituted about 10 percent of the total involves subtracting the commercial price value of the electronics sample and would from the DoD have enhanced DoD's purchasing position price and then "A new acquisition of relative to the commercial sector.

    The jobs and careers of This pdf commercial sectors: DoD buying and selling personnel could constrains pur- weighted price be adversely affected if unfavorable infor- chases in DoD's difference analysis. Even good news or a success story can This has the effect of making high-dollar- sometimes bring unintended consequences value purchases of greater importance in to a program or its management.

    Burton the analysis. Interestingly, this research provided an incident from in which uncovered many egregious purchases by the program manager for the Air Force's DoD, but in nearly every case they were A ammunition procurement, Col Bob for low-dollar-value items purchased in Dilger, was allegedly fired within hours of small quantities. Once those low-dollar- briefing much of the Pentagon's Air Force value purchases were weighted, their leadership on how he had introduced com- importance in the overall analysis waned.

    The largest sam- ference, aggregates all purchases at DoD ple presently found in the literature con- and commercial prices to arrive at the defense of 40 purchases Angier, White, and dollar totals. The calculation is to first Horowitz, Even at the macro-level compute the ratio of total commercial to of the sample, this research shows that as DoD buying cost and then subtract one to the average dollar value of an electronic, arrive at the relative efficiency. This engine, or software purchase increased, so method, equivalent to a price index using did DoD's relative buying efficiency.

    DoD quantities acquisition weights, compares the Engine buying significantly outperformed DoD cost to purchase all of the goods in a software buying and software buying sample to the commercial wholesale cost significantly outperformed electronic to purchase the same goods. Aggregate analysis of DoD's purchas- ing performance was no different. Over- ANALYSIS all, weighted price difference analysis reveals that DoD outperformed the average Weighted price difference analysis commercial sector organization using between the commercial wholesale and commercial wholesale prices by Table 1 summarizes these find- The elec- column of Table 1.

    Using commercial when purchasing commodities. In terms of total ferences. The range of unweighted price lar value of a purchase. Furthermore, many differences begin at just more than of download individual purchases contributing percent and climb to more than to the perceived poor DoD buying perfor- percent. All of the purchases are plotted mance would make good anecdotes for the in Figure 1. The scatterplot guidebook that evening news or a tabloid article.

    A more the vast majority of purchases are in DoD's realistic assessment of DoD's buying favor, falling in the 0- to percent performance is found by weighting the range in terms of unweighted price differ- purchases according to purchase volume, ence. The average trivial amounts. Even when DoD's purchasing organization acquisition at wholesale prices, costs are considered, DoD outperforms the This research was also innovative in average commercial sector organization factoring DoD's oversight guidebook into the buying at wholesale prices.

    If the and their labor typical consumer needs only a loaf of costs computed. In nearly every case these bread or gallon of milk, he or she will more individuals either supported other engine often than not purchase it at the nearest purchases or other activities beside convenience store even though a grocery software purchasing. But if the con- Two case studies from the engine and sumer has a long list of items to buy or it software commodity sectors considered all is the weekly shopping trip, he or she DoD purchasing costs and assumed the will undoubtedly go to the guidebook grocery commercial sector's buying costs were store or discount warehouse for its bet- zero.

    Despite this handicap, DoD outper- ter prices. On high-cost purchases such formed the average commercial sector as automobiles, houses, and appliances, firm buying at commercial wholesale the typical consumer is more likely to prices. However, if the guidebook Like a typical consumer, a variety of best commercial customer purchased those practices are employed by DoD in order same parts and purchased them while to achieve superior performance relative accruing no labor costs, they would have to the average commercial sector firm.

    This is, however, an area an item than any other commercial sector ripe for process improvement across DoD, firm buying under similar circumstances, since all product lines are not effectively although this statute is rarely enforced. In the software sector, port a sole source purchase of some kind studying suppliers, aggregating require- where competition is not used even ments, and waiting for sales provided deep though altemnative suppliers may exist. With vides visibility effective forecasting, DoD can then enter into a manufacturer's production costs.

    It into long-termn contracts with a supplier costs DoD money in terms of buying per- to provide incremental quantities on a sonnel and on-site labor to collect cost and monthly basis over several years. This pricing data. Ironically, the acquisition provides a win-win situation pdf DoD and reform movement succeeded in making it suppliers. This is precisely how informa- more difficult for DoD to collect cost and tion distortion in a supply chain can be pricing data with FARA of The eliminated, and thus lead to the greatest irony lies in the DoD leadership's percep- efficiencies for both the supplier and tion of what is and what will continue to customer Lee, Padmanabhan, and be a commercial practice: collecting cost Whang; With good forecasting and pricing data Vander Schaaf testimony, information for the DoD buyer and his Perrow has shown throughput management that minimizes that large organizations that possess power cost Fuller, O'Conor, and Rawlinson, over subordinate suppliers regularly audit The DoD is able to glean the ben- their records and cites Ford Motor Coin- efits of a high-quantity buy while accru- pany as one example.

    Pfeffer ing savings from reduced inventory. In order to meet these sometimes edge to control conflicting goals, DoD has searched over "We need to pay the price at time and arrived at a download of procedures or attention to the which it buys. Also, DoD has ing deeply into the supplier's engineering a system of authority and influence in and quality activities Hardy and Magrath, place for defense Most notable is the ; Burt, ; Myer, ; Cross, practice of having contracting officers ; and Taylor and Wiggins, In rather than program or item managers the food service and retail sectors, awarding contracts.

    Similarly, only cer- McDonald's and Wal-Mart, respectively, tain contracting officers are allowed to as examples, can be seen exercising this award contracts above certain dollar kind of leverage over a supplier, thresholds. A system of training is in place Fourth, DoD will seek secondary to cultivate increasing levels of expertise sources of supply when they own a set of and experience. Lastly, for items that are bought This research has provided evidence and sold in large volumes in the commer- that calls into question generally held cial sector and are found on a commercial beliefs about government purchasing.

    The price list, DoD will often negotiate price evidence shows that at least in the sectors breaks off of the commercial list price, examined by this research, DoD is clearly Once the reasons for DoD's superior doing an effective job purchasing and that buying performnance are distilled, it is download its defense increases as the total the organizational framework first pre- dollar value of a purchase increases. Acquisition sented by SimonMarch and finding should cause DoD policy makers Simonand then Cyert and March to carefully consider how they allocate offers one interpretation of DoD's their valuable labor dollars to ensure performance.

    In terms of purchasing, DoD effective purchasing. It is far more impor- exercising of judgment in the collection tant that we ensure, for example, that the of cost and pricing data. Furthermore, the several million dollars in turbine blades definition of a commercial item should re- and vanes for certain engines are bought vert back to its former incarnation, where effectively. We need to pay attention to a commercial item was a product that was the big picture: big purchases. Other sold in significant quantity in the commer- emerging evidence indicates this is not an cial sector.

    In the past, a contracting officer institutionalized practice. The data embodied in truly commer- power Is a classic this research was gathered before the im- acquisition. The most strategy for saving plementation of policy changes associated important irony money In both public with FARA. Today, DoD buyers and con- of this latest and private sectors.

    The conditions surrounding the for many spare parts than they were two purchase of commercial items have years ago; thus, they will have less to changed. It is no surprise that FARA by listing traditionally military or we are now seeing spare parts shortages noncompetitive parts in a commercial as budgets fail to procure required num- catalog, calling them commercial items, bers.

    The movement to price-based pur- and offering them for sale to the public- chasing of militarized, noncompetitive daring government procurement officers parts has exacerbated the current spare to ask for cost information, even if that parts crisis facing our operational units. This should cause percent increase.

    The fairness and DoD's leadership to more carefully con- reasonableness of the prices were deter- sider how it intends to make DoD a more mined using the cost and pricing data DoD efficient buying organization. Leader- collected only two years ago for those very ship needs to more realistically evaluate same parts. The DoD should the taxpayer more money. Uniformly exploit weighted price difference analy- eliminating in-plant oversight personnel sis by collecting samples of guidebook purchases that collect cost and pricing data will annually at each of its buying activities adversely affect DoD's purchasing power, and compare performance to the average for cost and pricing data is a valuable commercial sector organization.

    The DoD must continue to well it is doing today. These analyses need examine where it has market buying power to consider all costs download benefits that fea- and then exercise that market power to get sibly can be gathered. Real cost-benefit the fairest price for the taxpayer. Exploit- defense will help DoD to identify where ing market power is a classic strategy for it is buying well and determine the right saving money in both public and private mix of on-site support to help buyers and sectors Thompson and Jones, Then DoD can for- Certainly within the engine and software mulate the kind of strong measurement commodity sectors DoD carries important program needed to truly improve its pur- buying power ripe for exploitation, chasing processes.

    Despite numerous calls This research provides important for reform and commercialization of its measures of efficiency DoD should but activities over the past three decades, does not consistently measure across its DoD's leadership has little understanding buying organizations. For the past 40 of how effective its buying processes are years multiple pieces of legislation have compared to the commercial sector. Air Force or Carnegie Mellon University. Air Force, Washington, DC. He has served in a variety of Weapon and Combat Support System software program manage- ment positions.

    He has a Ph. Pdf address: joe. Professor Arora's defense focuses on the eco- nomics of technological change, the management of technology, intellectual property rights, and technology licensing. He has in the past worked on ques- tions of the productivity of university research, and the growth and development of biotechnology and the chemical industry.

    An enduring research interest is in understanding the rise and their consequences. E-mail address: ashish andrew. He earned B. PP and Ph. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Shane Reese. His current research centers on the foundations of performance measurement.

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    E-mail address: p11 5 cyrus. Six sigma download implies that the Pdf Dilger was a fighter pilot and product is of such high quality that not a graduate of any of the Air Force's the defect rate can be measured using procurement schools, yet he managed a single digit per one million items to drive down costs and return un- manufactured. In the sometimes perverse 2. The A-1l0 Warthog is the tank-killing world of DoD procurement, the "in- aircraft that was the big success story ability" to use all of one's allocated of the Gulf War.

    Colonel Dilger's suc- funding is taken as a sign of poor cess was a source of embarrassment. An analysis outsourcing: British Petroleum's com- ofcommercialcommodity acquisition. Cyert, R. A Besselman, J. Purchasingper- behavioral theory of the firm. University, Pittsburgh, PA. The searchfor government efficiency: From hubris to helplessness. New Burt, D. Manag- York: McGraw-Hill. Harvard Business Review, Fuller, J.

    Tailored logis- Burton, J. The Pentagon wars. Business Review, Center for Strategic and International Gansler, J. Integrating try. Buying groups: Opstal. Washington, DC: Author. Clout for small businesses. Comeau, L. Nuts and bolts at the Pentagon:A spare acquisition Heberling, M. ContractManage- and Policy Priorities. Testimony be- cal Sciences Corporation. Defense Service, U. The external control of S.

    Information distor- organizations. New York: Harper and tion in a supply chain: The bullwhip Row. Management Science, 43 4 Rich, B. Skunk works. Boston: Little, Brown. Mandel, C. Going com- mercial with the commercial com- Simon, H. Administrative be- modity acquisition program. Defense havior 4th ed. March, J. StewartW. De- Organizations. New York: Wiley. Washington, DC: March-April.

    PublicAdministration Review, 56 2Stimson, R. Buying commercial: What works and what doesn't. Defense Sys- Michelli, T. Corn- tems Management Review, Taylor, C. Competition or compen- Management College. American Economic Suppliers-Manage your customers. Review, 87 4 HarvardBusiness Review, Thompson, F. Deregulating Peck, M.

    The defense acquisition. PoliticalScience weapons acquisitionprocess: An eco- Quarterly, 4 Reinventing the Pentagon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Perrow, C. Organizationalanaly- sis: A sociological view. Walt, Stephen M. The Testimony before House Small Busi- renaissance of security studies. Inter- ness Committee, U. House of nationalStudies Quarterly, 35, Representatives. Scoff Military technology can be compromised following foreign sales to an ally, accidental loss, or capture during a conflict by an enemy.

    A time of some future conflict The ta Ops Center was alive with the buzz While guidebook continued conduct of the strike occupied the thoughts and energy A created from the most recent news of most in the room, a small contingent flash.

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    The first loss in the war of a Ban- was crowded around a screen where the shee UCAV uninhabited combat air latest overhead imagery was being dis- vehicle was causing a bit of consterna- played. The initial reaction was one of tion. The loss itself was unfortunate surprise and then muted murmurings. If enough, although some were taking solace the imagery was to be believed, it was from the fact that it didn't come about as showing that the aircraft had survived the a result of enemy fire.

    Instead, a failure of resulting crash in rather good condition. And apparently it was tems engineering activities intended to undamaged! While the new missile's capabili- ness, shorten the expected combat- ties against ECM were judged very effec- effective life of the system, or significantly tive, they were considered "fragile" be- alter program direction. If the enemy were able tions conopspremature retirement of a to recover the processor and download the weapons system, or major system design operational flight program OFP contain- changes to regain some level of effective- ing these algorithms, then as everyone ness.

    The air su- vary depending on the technology being periority that had been gained over the past protected. For example, state-of-the-art few days of the war would be jeopardized technology of a critical nature defense very quickly Some examples of AT techniques appear to be the stuff of science fiction, it include software encryption, integrated is a vital concern today. The loss or com- circuit defense coatings, and hardware promise of critical U.

    Unfortunately, defense policies say little specifically about protection of our weapon systems through AT. Accordingly, there has been limited inherent design has not been the standard motivation for, knowledge of, or enthusi- practice for industry weapons makers nor asm by program managers to incorporate of their government partners, that is, our AT techniques into the weapon systems fellow acquisition program managers. However, changes in technology, in the We believe, however, that even with- military and political environments, and out specific language mandating the use in defense acquisition policies favor an of AT techniques, the direction that has approach guidebook weapons systems develop- existed provides ample reason for program ment that addresses this potential weak- managers to consider incorporating them.

    The name for this new approach is For an example of such direction we need "4anti-tamper. Defense Acquisition which says in part that program managers foreign collection efforts and prevent are to "selectively and effectively apply unauthorized disclosure to deliver to our security countermneasures to protect essen- forces uncompromised combat effective- tial technology.

    The pro- interpretation of gram protection plan defines and refines DoD guidance is perfectly legitimate and a system security baseline for the imple- within the spirit and intent of the origina- mentation of security countermeasures and tors of these directives. Despite these to man-age security costs as well as risks arguments, it is clear from the current situ- guidebook the life cycle of the system.

    This goal is acquisition employment schemes during the develop- by inhibiting exploitation and the devel- ment and initial fielding phases of a opment of countermeasures against critical system's life cycle. Such a perspective is U. It fails to Within the past few years, U. Increas- sustaining acquisition. Whereas sition program protection "integrates all in the past, U. Additionally, the DoD is seeking exposure of U.

    As has been widely reported, definition phase through production, field- U. While much higher rate than at any time during these efforts have the potential to enhance the Cold War. Invariably, as download demon- interoperability, standardization, and com- strated by the shootdown of Capt Scott monality, reduce unit costs, and strengthen O' Grady, military systems will be lost in U. There is no guaran- critical U.

    Lastly, the threat of espionage has not The process for incorporating AT tech- withered with the demise of the former niques rests upon the firm foundation of Soviet Union. In fact, the "rainbow threat" the systems engineering discipline. As download counter-espionage activities even with all complex engineering tasks, if one more difficult today than during pdf Cold is to succeed in developing a solution to War.

    Still, our experiences pdf that satisfy some need, the need itself must be period provide ample evidence that our thoroughly understood and properly trans- technological advantages can be compro- lated into performance and technical mised. As an example, the Journalof Elec- requirements. The means by which we tronic Defense reports that in the s determine what, if any, AT techniques the introduction of the AIM-9 air-to-air should be incorporated into a weapon missile provided a performance advantage system and how is no different.

    DAG Chapters

    Figure 1 that far exceeded its U. Yet the Soviets were able to requirements. The there exists no need to consider the incor- first main part is depicted in the top half poration of AT techniques absent a criti- of Figure 1 and consists of six steps. Only those sys- These first six steps are usually performed tems that contain critical technology need by the contractor in cooperation with go through this process.

    The next two steps consist of identify- The first of these steps is to acquissition ing both vulnerabilities of critical tech- the critical technologies that are under nologies to exploitation and the actual consideration for design into a weapon means by which they might be exploited. What constitutes a "critical tech- Again, these assessments must look to the nology" was defined earlier. Critical hardware and software aspects of a sys- technologies include both software download tem and their relationship to system per- hardware.

    Once these technologies have formance. These steps are critical to the been identified, the "threats" to them are design efforts going into the weapon sys- usually ascertained through some process tem proper, since they usually indicate if involving "red-teaming" or scrutiny by and where measures caquisition be taken to pro- those experts in friendly and adversarial tect the constituent critical technologies. This step consists not only Performing these steps may also provide of identifying who might be psf and important acquissition example, that ex- capable of exploiting identified critical ploitation may be possible but very diffi- technologies, but why and guidebok they might cult.

    This information can be downlaod be. Technologies can be useful for tradeoffs to be conducted later exploited to determine how they can be in the guidebook. For example, if a critical technology is exploited, it may. By the These assessments provide the same token, exploitation guidebook not result basis for any decision pertaining in lost capability if other factors are odf the protection of the [critical important to the realization of a weapon technologies] as part of the over- system's full performance potential.

    Defense Acquisition incorporating protective schemes are development process, the AT requirement worthwhile compared to the cost of should not be defense absolute, but is pd that must be taken once a something that must be balanced with technology is compromised. Anti- The last step in the front half of the tamper is not immune to tradeoffs that requirements process is to assess possible must be made as mandated by the policy exploitation timelines that serve to miti- of cost as an independent variable CAIV.

    To the requirements process consists of four illustrate, consider the impact of the pace steps. The first pdc these is to identify AT of technological advancement in the techniques that are available to counter the microprocessor field. When a certain exploitation threats. The nature of the criti- microprocessor, let us say an application- cal technologies requiring protection will specific integrated circuit ASICis naturally dowmload a first filter for those designed into a weapon system, it defense techniques that may have application.

    At indeed represent a critical technology. But this stage the alternatives being consid- when one considers that similar commer- ered may be cial technology will match and overcome quite acquisitoon the ASIC's performance capabilities even if they. The technological advantage is, to inhibit ex- development will be lost in a relatively short amount acquisition ploitation.

    The processthe AT time through means available on the open second step is to requirement should market. This first "cut" can usu- absolutely secure, but it might increase the ally be accomplished by eliminating those time it takes to break the encryption code options whose affordability or efficacy are by an order of magnitude-ensuring that clearly pdf compared to the other the weapon cannot be exploited during its options. Typically a top-level look at the downloav life. A bit more detail on this countermeasures proposed will surface form of AT will be discussed below.

    On the defwnse system are complete, then a preliminary require- design side such considerations include ment for AT can be stipulated. But a proper analy- It does little good to protect one avenue sis also accounts for the relative merit of giidebook exploitation if another is left open. As an AT technique acquisitioj inhibiting exploi- the adage goes, putting a special lock or tation, the anticipated timeline and cost bolt on the outside of the front door will that exploitation efforts will take, and the not protect the back gate.

    It is selection of the fo Tfra US oiyt cnweg htA eh saoet. However, if exploitation process. No AT technique is that same technique could give another fool-proof, and it defeats the purpose of program 10 years of protection for the incorporating it defdnse an pdf is tipped same cost and if the total program budget off to what he is dealing with as he is larger, then the relative benefit appears attempts to, exploit the technology that has much more attractive, fallen into his hands.

    Since these tech- To systems engineers, this evaluation niques are downlad fool-proof, an "onion lay- methodology is nothing new or unfamil- ered" approach may be necessary. Gener- iar. It simply incorporates another "per- ally speaking, overlaid techniques provide formance" requirement that is subject to more robust protection. It may generic examples acsuisition illustrate the kinds make final design choices a bit more of options available to the program man- complex, but it is no less subject to CAIV ager.

    These examples include: considerations as any other decision in the engineering design process. The - cryptography to include encryption and dimension guidebook wins the day may not be decryption. Defense Acquisition Coatings serve to make it very difficult of deciphering technique. Anyone look- to extract or dissect microelectronic com- ing at encrypted data sees only cipher text, ponents without greatly damaging them that is, a acquistiion of nonsense letters, nu- in the process.

    Self-destructing compo- merals and symbols. The mathematical nents may deffnse akin to the assignment formula pddf accomplishing the decipher- tapes from the Mission Impossible series, ing process is an algorithm that takes time yet in their essential respects they really dfense solve. Depending to some degree on are no different. After use or when exposed the type of algorithm used, the larger the to certain environments, devices employ- number of bits used in the encryption pro- ing this form of AT damage themselves cess, the longer the time defense will take to beyond reconstruction.

    However, a lesson complete the deciphering process. The learned from this technique is that employ- adjacent table provides some insight into ing it can have important implications for the nature of this relationship Krey, For Obviously, in this example, the bit length instance, if a system needs to go to a depot the designer will shoot for will depend on for repairs, it may be difficult to remove a what the technology will support for a cover or open a lid if an explosive is given engineering application, the associ- primed and ready to erupt upon doing so.

    Code Breaking Times No. Such operational requirements development action has facilitated the process to per- community specify the need to protect mit sales of xcquisition systems acquisittion allies and critical technologies inherent in weapon other foreign customers. One of the les- systems from compromise or reverse sons learned from these programs is acquistiion engineering. Alternately, the program incorporation of AT after the dowmload de- management directives can be used to task ;df has been frozen is extremely expen- program managers to do the same.

    Unf or- sive. It is not that all AT guidebookk are in tunately, these actions may be the only themselves expensive, but their afford- way to ensure adoption of AT techniques ability is critically dependent on when they until they enjoy more widespread are introduced into the design process. If acceptance. Another lesson learned is that system A big boost for the AT cause came about engineers should thoroughly explore the on February 11,when Jacques use of existing Gansler, Assistant Secretary of Defense for AT download Acquisition and Technology, signed out a "Unfortunately, few before commit- memorandum fostering implementation of have arrived at the ting to develop- AT techniques in military acquisition enlightened position ment of a brand programs : pdf AT Is cownload viable new technique.

    Anti- used for encryption can be modified Tamper is based on existing slightly to provide a completely different DoD Once [a new envisioned. The short-term policy responsibilities for AT within the answer to this dilemma is to have the DoD. Additionally, taxpayer by helping to download U. Service, U. Special Operations Coin- technological advantages.

    Once accomplished, program will find such a managers may elect not to incorporate AT scenario diffi- techniques aquisition their weapons develop- cult to accept as possible or likely. For ments, but the onus will be on them to those downloac continue to resist the impera- demonstrate why and how they intend to tive for assessing what role, if any, AT address the exploitation threat. In during World War 1, Anthony SUMMARY Fokker, guideboom great Dutch aviation pioneer, revolutionized aerial combat pcf he From the foregoing discussion it should developed a synchronizing system to be clear that the incorporation of AT permit a forward-firing machine gun to techniques provides significant benefits.

    Defense warfighter from countermeasures Fokker's mechanism, German aircraft development, gained the advantage over the Allies and established air superiority. French lines When he became lost in bad weather. Anti- nizer that interrupted the ldf firing tamper technology is an affordable means pattern so bullets were prevented from to provide life-cycle program protection being fired when a blade passed through to essential or critical U.

    With equivalent capability nologies. Recently established DoD policy in hand, the Allies quickly reestablished mandates that program downloxd assess parity in the air Hildreth and Nalty, It is supported by historical prece- or upgrades. The time to act is now. Lt Col Art Huber, U. The material provided in this paper was developed during his aqcuisition assignment to the Pentagon defense the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Acquisition.

    He has presented and published a variety defwnse papers dealing with technical and military topics. He has an M. E-mail address: art. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and a minor in physics. After her intership, she began working vownload Anti-Tamper program. Harvard Business Review, Pdf, J. Tailored logis- Burton, J. The Pentagon wars. Business Review, Center for Strategic download International Gansler, J.

    Integrating try. Buying groups: Opstal. Washington, DC: Author. Clout for small businesses. Comeau, L. Nuts and bolts at the Pentagon:A spare parts Heberling, M. ContractManage- and Policy Priorities. Testimony be- cal Sciences Corporation. Armed Service, U. The external control of S. Information distor- organizations. New York: Harper and tion in a supply chain: The bullwhip Row.

    Management Science, 43 4 Rich, B. Skunk dowwnload. Boston: Little, Brown. Mandel, C. Going com- mercial with the commercial com- Simon, H. Administrative be- modity acquisition program. Defense havior 4th ed. March, J. StewartW. De- Organizations. New York: Wiley. Washington, DC: March-April. PublicAdministration Review, 56 2Stimson, R. Buying commercial: What works and what doesn't.

    Defense Sys- Michelli, T. Corn- tems Management Review, Taylor, C. Competition or compen- Management College. American Economic Suppliers-Manage your customers. Review, 87 4 HarvardBusiness Review, Thompson, F. Deregulating Peck, M. The defense acquisition. PoliticalScience weapons acquisitionprocess: An afquisition Quarterly, 4 Reinventing the Pentagon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Download, C. Organizationalanaly- sis: A sociological view. Walt, Stephen Defemse. The Testimony before House Small Busi- renaissance of security studies. Inter- ness Committee, U. House of nationalStudies Quarterly, 35, Representatives. Scoff Military technology can be compromised following foreign sales to an ally, accidental loss, or capture during a conflict by an enemy. A time of some future conflict The dkwnload Ops Center was alive with the buzz Acquisiion the continued conduct of the strike occupied the thoughts and energy A created acqujsition the most recent news of most in the room, a small contingent flash.

    The first loss in the war of a Acquidition was crowded around a screen where the shee UCAV uninhabited combat air latest overhead imagery was being dis- vehicle downlaod causing a bit of consterna- played. The initial reaction was one of acquisition. The loss itself was unfortunate surprise and then muted murmurings.

    If enough, although some were acquisition solace the imagery was to be believed, it was from the fact that it download come about as showing that the aircraft had survived the a result of enemy fire. Instead, a failure of resulting crash in rather good condition. And apparently it was tems engineering activities pdf to undamaged! While the new missile's capabili- ness, shorten the expected combat- ties against ECM were judged very effec- effective life of the system, or significantly tive, they were considered "fragile" be- alter program direction.

    If the enemy were able tions conopspremature acquisitiin of a to recover the processor and download the weapons system, or major system design operational flight program OFP contain- acquisitlon to regain some level of effective- ing these algorithms, then as everyone ness. The acquisition su- vary depending on the technology being periority that had been gained over the past protected.

    For example, state-of-the-art few days of the war would be jeopardized technology of a critical nature typically very quickly Some examples of AT techniques appear to be the stuff of science fiction, it include software encryption, integrated is a vital concern pdf. The loss or guidebook circuit protective coatings, and hardware promise of critical U. Unfortunately, defense policies say little specifically vuidebook protection of our weapon systems through AT.

    Accordingly, there has been limited inherent design has guidebook been the standard acquisitoon for, acquistiion of, or enthusi- practice for industry weapons makers nor asm by program managers to incorporate of their government partners, that is, our AT techniques into the weapon systems fellow acquisition program managers. However, changes in technology, in the We believe, however, that even with- military and political environments, and out specific language mandating the use in defense acqyisition policies favor download of AT techniques, the direction that has approach to weapons systems develop- existed provides ample reason for program ment that addresses this potential weak- managers to consider incorporating them.

    The name for this new approach is For an example of such direction we need "4anti-tamper. Defense Acquisition which says in part that program managers foreign collection efforts and prevent are to "selectively and effectively apply unauthorized disclosure to deliver to our security countermneasures to protect essen- forces uncompromised combat effective- tial technology. The pro- interpretation of gram protection plan defines and refines DoD guidance is perfectly legitimate and a acquisitkon security baseline for the imple- within the spirit and intent of the origina- mentation of security countermeasures and tors of these directives.

    Despite these to man-age security costs as well as risks arguments, it is clear from the current situ- through-out the life cycle of the system. This goal is accomplished employment schemes during the develop- by inhibiting exploitation and the devel- ment and initial fielding phases of defense opment of countermeasures guideboook critical system's life acquisition. Such a perspective is U. It fails to Within the past few years, U.

    Increas- sustaining download. Whereas sition program protection "integrates all in the past, U. Additionally, the DoD xcquisition seeking exposure of U. As has been dsfense reported, definition phase through production, field- U. While much higher rate than at any time during these efforts have the potential to enhance the Cold War. Invariably, as was demon- interoperability, standardization, and com- strated by the shootdown of Capt Scott monality, reduce unit costs, and strengthen O' Grady, military systems will be lost in U.

    There is no guaran- critical Acqquisition. Lastly, the threat downloax espionage has guidenook The process for incorporating AT tech- withered with the demise of the former niques rests upon the firm foundation of Soviet Union. In fact, the "rainbow threat" the systems engineering discipline. As makes counter-espionage activities even with all complex engineering tasks, if one more difficult today than during the Cold is downlozd succeed in developing a solution to War.

    Still, our experiences during that satisfy some need, the need defense must be period provide ample evidence that our thoroughly understood and properly trans- technological advantages can be compro- lated into performance and technical mised. As an example, the Journalof Elec- requirements. The means by which we tronic Defense reports acquisotion in the s determine what, if any, AT techniques the introduction of the AIM-9 air-to-air should be incorporated into a weapon missile provided a performance advantage system and how is no different.

    Figure 1 that far exceeded its U. Yet the Soviets were able to requirements. The there exists no need to consider the incor- first main part is depicted in the top half poration of AT techniques absent a criti- of Figure 1 and consists of six steps. Only those sys- These first six steps are usually performed tems that contain critical technology need by the contractor in cooperation with go through this process.

    The next two steps consist of identify- The first of these steps is to acquisition ing both vulnerabilities of critical tech- the critical technologies that are under nologies to exploitation and the actual consideration for design into a weapon means by which they might be exploited. What constitutes a "critical tech- Again, these assessments must look to guidebook nology" was defined earlier.

    Critical hardware and software buidebook of a sys- technologies include both software and tem and their relationship to system per- hardware. Once these technologies have formance. These steps are critical to the been identified, the "threats" to them are design efforts going into the weapon sys- usually ascertained through some process tem proper, defense they usually indicate if involving "red-teaming" or scrutiny by and where measures must be taken to pro- those experts in friendly and adversarial tect the constituent critical technologies.

    This step consists not only Performing these steps may also provide of identifying who might be interested and important insights-for example, that ex- capable of exploiting identified critical ploitation may be possible but very diffi- technologies, but why and how they might cult. This information can be extremely be. Technologies can be useful for tradeoffs to be conducted later exploited to determine how they can be in the process.

    For example, if a critical technology is downloac, it may. By the These assessments provide the pdr token, exploitation may not result basis for any decision pertaining in lost capability if other factors are to the protection of the [critical important to the realization of a weapon technologies] as part of the over- system's full performance potential. Defense Acquisition dwnload protective schemes are development process, the AT requirement worthwhile compared to the cost of should not be considered absolute, but is measures that must be taken once a something that must be balanced with technology is compromised.

    Anti- The last step in the front half of the tamper is not immune guidfbook tradeoffs that requirements process is to acquisition possible must be made as mandated by the policy exploitation timelines that serve to miti- of cost as an independent variable CAIV. To decense requirements process consists of four illustrate, consider the impact of the pace steps. The first of these is to identify AT of technological advancement in the techniques that are available to counter the microprocessor field.

    When a certain exploitation threats. The nature of the criti- microprocessor, let us say an application- cal technologies requiring protection will specific integrated circuit ASICpdf naturally provide a first filter for those designed into a weapon system, it may techniques that may have application. At indeed represent a critical technology. But this stage the alternatives being consid- when one considers that similar commer- ered may be cial technology will match and overcome quite different the ASIC's performance capabilities even if they.

    The technological advantage is, to inhibit ex- development will be lost in a relatively short amount of ploitation. The processthe AT time through means available on the open second step is to requirement should market. This first "cut" can usu- absolutely secure, but it might increase the ally be accomplished by eliminating those time it takes to break the encryption code options whose affordability or pdf are by an order of magnitude-ensuring that clearly unattractive compared to the other the weapon cannot be exploited during its options.

    Typically a top-level look at the expected life. A bit more detail on this countermeasures proposed will surface form of AT will be discussed below. On the weapon system are complete, then a preliminary require- design side such considerations include ment for AT can be stipulated. But acquisition proper analy- It does little good to protect one avenue sis also accounts for the relative merit of of exploitation if another is left open.

    As an AT technique for inhibiting exploi- the eefense goes, putting a special lock or tation, guiidebook anticipated timeline and cost bolt on the outside of the acquusition door guidebook that exploitation efforts will take, and the not protect the back gate. It is selection of the fo Tfra US oiyt cnweg htA downlpad saoet.

    However, if exploitation process.

    IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:

    No AT technique is that same technique could give another fool-proof, and it defeats the purpose of program download years of protection for the incorporating it if an adversary is tipped same cost and if the total program budget off to what he is defense with as he is larger, then the relative benefit appears attempts to, exploit the technology that has much more attractive, fallen into his hands. Since these tech- To systems engineers, this evaluation niques are not fool-proof, an "onion lay- methodology is nothing new or unfamil- ered" approach may be necessary.

    Gener- iar. It simply incorporates another "per- ally speaking, overlaid techniques provide formance" requirement that is subject to more robust protection. It may generic examples that illustrate the kinds make final design choices a bit more of acquisition available to the program man- complex, but it is no less subject to CAIV ager. These examples include: considerations as any other decision in guidebook engineering design process. The - cryptography to include encryption and dimension that wins the day may not be decryption.

    Defense Acquisition Coatings serve to make it very difficult of deciphering technique. Anyone look- to extract or dissect microelectronic com- ing at encrypted data sees only cipher text, ponents without greatly damaging them that is, a bunch of nonsense letters, nu- in the process. Self-destructing compo- merals and symbols. The mathematical nents may seem akin to the assignment formula for accomplishing the decipher- tapes from pdf Mission Impossible series, ing process is an algorithm that takes time yet in their essential respects they really to solve.

    Welcome - AcqNotesMissing: download. Jun 02,  · DoD Guide to Integrated Product and Process Development: Feb DSMC Acquisition Strategy Guide: Dec Defense Acquisition Program Support Methodology Guidebook version Navy PEO Acquisition Program Structure Guide: Feb HSI and ESOH Handbook for Pre MS A JCIDS and AoA Activities: Oct MITRE Defense Agile Acquisition-Guide: Mar U.S. Department of Defense.

    Depending to some degree on are no different. After use or when exposed the defense of algorithm used, the larger the to certain environments, devices employ- number of bits used in the encryption pro- ing this form of AT damage themselves cess, the longer the time it will take to beyond reconstruction. However, a lesson complete the deciphering process. The learned from this technique is pdf employ- adjacent table provides some insight into ing it can have important implications for the nature of this relationship Krey, For Obviously, in this example, the bit length instance, if a system needs to go to a depot the designer will shoot for will depend on for repairs, it may be difficult to remove defense what the technology will support for a cover or open a lid if an explosive is given engineering application, the associ- primed and ready to erupt upon doing so.

    Code Breaking Times No. Such operational requirements development action has facilitated the process to per- community specify the need to protect mit sales of these systems to allies and critical technologies inherent in weapon other foreign customers. One of the les- systems from compromise or reverse sons learned from these programs is that engineering. Alternately, the program incorporation of AT after the system de- management directives can be used to task sign download been frozen is extremely expen- program managers to do the same.

    Unf or- sive. It is not that all AT techniques are in tunately, these actions may be the only themselves expensive, but their afford- way to ensure adoption of AT techniques ability is critically aquisition on when they until they enjoy more widespread are introduced into the design process. If acceptance. Another lesson learned is that system A big boost for the AT cause came about engineers should thoroughly explore the on February 11,when Jacques use of existing Gansler, Assistant Secretary of Defense for AT applications Acquisition and Technology, signed out a "Unfortunately, few before commit- memorandum fostering implementation of have arrived at the ting to develop- AT techniques in military acquisition enlightened position ment of a brand programs : that AT Is a viable new technique.

    Anti- used for encryption can be modified Tamper is based on existing slightly to provide a completely different DoD Once [a new envisioned. The short-term policy responsibilities for AT within the answer to this dilemma is to have the DoD. Additionally, taxpayer by helping to sustain U. Service, U. Special Operations Coin- technological advantages.

    Once accomplished, program will find such a managers may elect not to incorporate AT scenario diffi- techniques into their weapons develop- cult to accept as possible or likely. For ments, but the onus will be on them to those dodnload continue to resist the impera- demonstrate why and how they intend to tive downlozd assessing what role, guideebook any, AT address the psf threat. Downlosd during World War 1, Anthony SUMMARY Fokker, the great Dutch aviation pioneer, revolutionized aerial combat when he From the foregoing discussion it should developed a synchronizing system to be clear that the incorporation of AT permit a forward-firing machine gun to techniques provides significant benefits.

    With warfighter from countermeasures Fokker's mechanism, German aircraft development, gained the advantage over the Allies and established air superiority. French lines When he became lost in bad weather. Anti- nizer that interrupted the gun's firing tamper technology pdf an affordable means pattern so bullets were prevented from to download life-cycle program protection being fired when a blade passed through to essential or critical U. With equivalent capability nologies.

    Recently established DoD policy in hand, the Allies quickly reestablished mandates that program managers assess parity in the air Hildreth and Nalty, It is supported by historical prece- or upgrades. The time to act is now. Lt Col Guidebiok Huber, U. The material provided in this paper was developed during his previous assignment to the Pentagon in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Acquisition. He has presented and published a variety of papers dealing with technical and military topics.

    He has an M. E-mail address: art. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and a minor guidebook physics. After her intership, she began working the Anti-Tamper program. E-mail address: scottjm pentagon. Krey, M. Decrypting Gansler, Xefense. Imple- the verbiage of encryption. Investors' mentation of anti-tamper AT tech- Business Daily. Taylor, W.

    Understand- ing the infrared threat. Journal of ElectronicDefense, Will One of the leading visions of the Defense Reform Initiative is "igniting a revolution in business acquisition guidebool the Department of Defense DoD that will bring to the Department management techniques and business practices that have restored American corporations to leadership in the market- place" Cohen, February The current study of price-based acquisition PBAfirst recommended by Secretary of Defense William Cohen in his Section report Aprilis an important step in this direction, and is important to another DoD goal: civil-military integration.

    Acquisition reform initiatives over the past several years have already paved the way for changing to PBA. Waivers of cost and pricing data and other price analysis methods have demonstrated that DoD can rely on these approaches to obtain best value for the guidebook as well as the taxpayer. PBA can be a logical extension to these trends and build on our successes to date in reducing pdc cost acquisition cycle pdf.

    For several decades, the DoD has re- lied increasingly on cost-based pro- ingly the dominant factor in several modem technologies and posals for its contracting process. The focus and intensity of has led to the imposition of unique investment in new industrial tech- accounting systems, extensive auditing, niques in manufacturing, process growing cycle times, and a loss of focus development, and product design on best guidebook. As noted by the Defense in most commercial industries is Science Board : far ahead of dedicated defense system producers.

    The pace of change and prolifera- tion of technology is increasingly DoD has grown acquisition concerned driven by commercial markets. The TINA require- Both the nature of the depart- ment to provide certified cost and ment's requirements and the way pricing data, and guidevook the in which prices can be determined large amount of auditing and other have changed. Now, DoD is pro- government oversight associated moting the use of performnance- with this requirement, is a unique based requirements that talk of feature of the defense market.

    All needs in terms of capability of the contractors visited by the required. In many cases this will project team acknowledge that permit the department's needs to there will always be defense need in be satisfied with commercial many cases for some cost-based products. Downlosd commercial pro- mechanism to validate prices in ducts aren't available, DoD's the defense market.

    The Federal study of price-based download. The rewrite accounting as one of its primarily concerns. The pricing data, para.

    Defense Acquisition Guidebook

    In practice, how- pany has long advocated using best ever, contracting officers were wary of commercial practices in government failing to ask for extensive cost and pricing contracting. Their price-based acquisition can become the judgment could be called into question by norm. And the Boeing Company is com- any of the numerous oversight functions pletely committed to the principles of if they failed to demonstrate their rationale civil-military integration.

    They work together Whatever its name, it brings defrnse the with the contractor's technical, adquisition parties together as the requirements are defense, and cost estimating staff to de- defined and the cost proposal developed. Thus, proposal preparation and fact- This is the beginning of a "catalog" finding are combined into afquisition seamless approach tailored to military process, with a significant reduction in guidehook.

    One of the has taught us that there is a learning curve leading examples of this is the C to this process. The defenes experience GlobemasterlIIIprogramwherean ex- requires patience, team building, and ad- tensive cost model was used to estab- herence to an agreed schedule. Travel costs lish the basis for the "should-cost" and and meeting time will appear excessive at subsequent multiyear contract. This first. More advanced IPTs have actually model has buy-in from all the parties included review of key suppliers' propos- and continues to be used today.

    The most The results are dramatic. Acquisition recent example of this has been on the cycle time is reduced. New relationships fiscal year production contract for are established based on trust and respect. Both the program office's in minutes or hours rather than days or requirements and contract documenta- weeks, with less disagreement over funda- tion as well as the contractor's cost and mental issues since requirements and the supporting information are located on scope have been shaped to be affordable.

    This is viewed as the be- that advance acquisition methods still ginning of administering the contract further, such as: throughout its performance and to closeout in electronic form. Code, have likewise been under pressure to YEAR have been granted authority to reduce staff, potentially increasing pdf bur- guidebook cost and pricing data if it was clear den on them and resulting in delays for that other price-based analyses could- be contracting officers when assist audits for used, such as reliance on adequate price cost proposals are requested.

    It also contained fixed-price of rotor craft U. Army memorandum, options for the first defense low-rate produc- Air Force the contract actions that commit the larg- memorandum, In all these in- est share of DoD procurement funding stances, the Boeing Company as the prime each year. Due to the confidence gained contractor re- through the use of alpha contracting quested waiver experiences described above as well as not only download our- "However, sole- extensive price history, contracting officers selves, but also source contracts are began to request waivers of certified cost for our subcon- a:tions that commia t and pricing data on major sole-source tractors, and athon tharet chareio programs from HCAs within the past guidebook usually these DhD larocushrement years.

    The production lot ing supplier pdf with cost and pricing included quantities for both the Service data due to the lead times to support our and guudebook foreign military sale. The program cost proposal. This download one of office challenged the company to meet a the lessons learned in the waiver pro- price objective-with the promise to giidebook maximum savings, flowing obtain a waiver of cost and pricing data downloac down to suppliers, the waiver should be we did.

    We provided our price offer acquisltion granted well in advance of normal some supporting data involving larger proposal submission. The Ser- After several more of these waivers vice agreed with the price and obtained were granted on large production pro- the waiver for this billion-dollar procure- grams, the resident DCAA auditor pre- ment U. Navy memorandum, After an exchange of because of less actual cost incurred information over a period of slightly more before the contract is awarded.

    Progress has continued as our custom- The low level of inflation throughout this ers have increased their confidence in this process has undoubtedly helped, but this tool for acquisition streamlining. Acquisjtion waiver need not be prohibitive since economic of cost and pricing data was given for the price adjustment acquisition adjustment of abnor- recurring production rotor craft portion of mal inflation in economy clauses have a multiyear prime contract totaling about often been used in both military and a billion dollars.

    The initial price proposal commercial aircraft procurements. During a several meetings to support the contract- three- to four-year period, one of Boeing's ing officer's determination of a "fair and major sites acquisition several large production reasonable" price. Certified cost and pric- programs and its customers were able to ing data was still required for some of the realize a reduction of 50 percent in pro- major subcontractors.

    The entire process, posal and contract cycle time. As an from request for proposal through defense, one annual production buy of 12 definitization, took only six acquisition. It "prescribes poli- integration abound during and since World cies and procedures unique to the acqui- War I1. They include: sition of commercial items. It is not unusual for DoD to procure 0 C-9 for Navy and Air Force; and commercial transport aircraft for a variety of military missions.

    As Billy Mitchell 0 C and C Air Force and ordering for military aircraft and rotor craft the C for the U. Navy are some of has been developed recently. In this case, the most recent examples of DoD procure- the local administrative contracting officer ments today under FAR Part In both negotiates prices, if necessary, and the cases, commercial pricing was obtained, Boeing Company agrees to hold these including for many of the modifications prices for a year, with an agreed quantity deemed to be of a type customary guidebook discount provision, in its catalog.

    In one the marketplace or minor modifications case, we have pdf Service download using for unique defense needs.

    defense acquisition guidebook pdf download

    Obviously, with guidebook ing various approaches to streamlining the enactment of performance-based mile- spares acquisition process. One attractive stone payments, this need is eliminated. It can supply price as well procurement programs that are working as schedule, lead time, and delivery very downlowd. For commercial items, the U. If the vast majority of the acquisition policies have not downloaad pub- work at a site is commercial, then GAS lished as this article went to press.

    It is should not be imposed for a small clear, however, that a pathway has been amount of military work. This would created that will allow contracting offic- negate the imposition of TINA for cer- ers adquisition embrace this defensf. Progress in tified cost and pricing data. Instead, alpha contracting, waivers of certified cost contracting officers will rely on freely and pricing data, purchase of commercial supplied information regarding cost items, and using catalogs for small drivers from accounting systems that purchases are demonstrating the value of comply with generally accepted PBA.

    The savings in acquisition cycle time accounting pdf to support CAIV and cost can be aqcuisition. If we of cost and pricing data. We have should have learned any one thing from already proven that other price analy- acquisition reform, it is that there is no sis tools can suffice, such as market single best solution-for judging past per- analysis, cost models and parametric formance, for using performance or detail estimating techniques, or adequate specifications, for any single product sus- price history.

    A truly dramatic para- tainment approach, or for contracting. PBA will provide standardswould be to require still another tool set that can help contract- a waiver for a contracting officer to ing officers acquire commercially avail- request certified cost and pricing data. Often tions, statements of objectives or work, DoD's policies fail to penetrate through use of CAIV, application of paramet- the layers of the supply chain from the ric estimating methods, and cost mod- prime contractors.

    These suppliers can eling by all the parties involved in the easily represent guideboo than half the defense acquisition process. FAR Defdnse 12 does acquisition reform, but a common corn- this with a flow-down provision that plaint is the lack of training in these permits use of download item exemp- new concepts and tools.

    This has been tions anywhere in the supply chain, noted in revolution guisebook business affairs Similarly, DoD should consider poli- goals, and progress has already been cies that essentially grant HCA author- made. Acquistiion example, Stan Soloway's ity to primes at any level to waive DoD acquisition reform office has held supplier cost and pricing data. Such a number of excellent nationwide video waivers must still meet the test of broadcasts. But many of the acquisition dis- reasonableness that a contracting cussed in this paper are still the excep- officer must meet.

    The prime should tions and are not commonplace, which demonstrate that market pricing, cost demonstrates the need to continue modeling, or adequate price history are training. It also demonstrates the need available and sufficient to arrive at a for top-level management support guidebook negotiation objective.

    DoD remains at these tools. DoD awards should be the top of this "pyramid" and can given to those teams that best support ultimately render a judgment on the their war-fighter customers and DoD's price determination reflected in the policies by reducing acquisition cost price or cost proposal presented acquisition and lead times.

    PBA will require still negotiation. Some of the greatest gains further training to guodebook successful. There defense cost and cycle time will accrue at is an advantage, we have learned, pdf these subcontract levels, conducting training of industry and government at the same time, as both It should encourage training, more need to huidebook their old cultural roots training, and a tolerance for risk taking.

    Will was made Di! He obtained his undergraduate acquisution from St. Louis UMSL in E-mail address: edward. Bailey, G. Audit ser- vices without the submission of cost Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part guidebook pricing data. Clinger Cohen Act ofPub. Cohen, W. Defense Mitchell, B. Our Air Force-The reform initiative, keystone to national defense. Price-based Perry, W. Specifications approachto acquisition Section and standards-A new way caquisition doing Report to Congress, Section 5.

    Rosendorf, Diwnload. An industry survey. Section Commission report March, The criterion that governs the assignment to specific acquisition categories is codified in Title 10 U. The expenditure-level. MDA designation 4 paragraph 5 of section of Donwload k. Excluded are computer resources, both hardware and software, that are:. This structure is depicted for various types of programs in Figure A. The formal decision forums are key bodies in this oversight dffense governance process.

    It is instructive to examine their composition. DAB board members acquisition advisors are listed in Table Acquisitiob. Test and evaluation artifacts ranging from strategy documents to final test reports are required for every milestone review. For software-intensive programs dowload no production components, Milestone Defense is a deployment decision.

    These threshold requirements come from the approved capabilities development document developed in the JCIDS process. This includes interoperability testing and network-ready certification conducted by downloxd Joint Interoperability Test Command JITCand information assurance certification and accreditation defenee conducted by the designated accrediting authority.

    In short, the DAMS is a complex system of governance and oversight. For any MDAP or MAIS program, preparing for and successfully conducting the series of milestone reviews necessary to deploy capability to end users is a major undertaking. In the military, information technology IT download enabled profound advances in weapons systems and the management and operation of the defense enterprise. A significant portion of the Department of Defense DOD budget is spent on capabilities acquired as commercial IT commodities, developmental IT systems that support a broad range of warfighting and functional applications, and IT pdf embedded in weapons systems.

    The ability of the DOD and its industrial partners to harness and apply IT for warfighting, command and control and communications, logistics, and transportation has contributed enormously to fielding the world's best defense force. However, despite the DOD's decades of success in leveraging IT across the defense enterprise, the acquisition of IT systems continues to be burdened with serious problems. The group evaluated applicable legislative requirements, examined the processes and capabilities of the commercial IT sector, analyzed Guuidebook concepts for systems engineering and testing in virtual environments, and examined the DOD acquisition environment.

    Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read prf of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page dlwnload and press Enter to adquisition directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pageswhere you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

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    4 thoughts on “Defense acquisition guidebook pdf download”

    1. Sean Taliaferro:

      The Pentagon recently revised its Defense Acquisition Guidebook, according to an update on the Defense Acquisition University's website:. Revisions include new or revised business practice associated with the Weapons Systems Acquisition Reform Act, the Better Buying Power initiatives, implementation of the Improving Milestone Process Effectiveness policy, and requirements based on various Directive Type Memorandums. The home page for the Guidebook has been re-designed to provide easier access to the chapters and the acquisition framework models.

    2. Nicole Marcos:

      The DoD Guides and Handbooks listed below are a collection of the most frequent ones used in acquisitions. Skip to content Guides and Handbooks. Guides and Handbooks.

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